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英国人最爱的英语诗歌:多佛海滩Dover Beach by Matthew Arnold(MP3+双语)

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马修·阿诺德(Matthew Arnold, 1822-1888)的名诗《多佛海滩》(Dover Beach)以这不同凡响的气度开局,三言两语就定下了诗歌的时空与情感基调。“千古悲鸣”表明了诗人的情绪也有了巨大的翻转,这与这一节中时间的流逝、注意力由视觉向听觉的转移有极大的关联。诗歌开头的一般现在时所允诺永恒良辰美景顿成乌有。诗人也许突然顿悟,光明与黑暗的交替,潮水的涨落,月的阴晴圆缺,人的悲欢离合,皆是自然之律,难以违逆。正是这 “千古悲鸣”令百感交集的诗人想到了另一个时空中的索福克勒斯,并从中找到了神秘的思想纽带。人通过回返自己的内心世界,洞察到了世界的表象和实质之间存在着巨大的差异

论诗才、诗歌的总体质量和数量,阿诺德都要比同时代的大诗人丁尼生(Alfred Tennyson, 1809-1892)和勃朗宁(Robert Browning, 1806-1861)稍逊一筹。但就单篇的名气和影响而言,《多佛海滩》恐怕就要力压群芳。在维多利亚时期的诗歌中,《多佛海滩》之所以如此引人瞩目,为人传诵,很大程度上要归因于诗作本身在观念和气质上的现代性。自《多佛海滩》发表以来,许多的诗人对其主题都进行了各具特色的回应,绵延至今,未曾断绝。如果能够梳理“多佛海滩”引起的“余波”,那将是一篇更长论文的范畴。在此,我只想举出,现代主义诗坛的两大巨匠——叶芝(W. B. Yeats, 1865-1939)和艾略特(T. S. Eliot, 1888-1965)——都在自己的诗歌中对阿诺德的洞见发出了呼应,足证《多佛海滩》的深远影响。

Dover Beach 多佛海岸
Matthew Arnold 马修·阿诺德

The sea is calm to-night.
The tide is full, the moon lies fair
Upon the straits; on the French coast the light
Gleams and is gone; the cliffs of England stand;
Glimmering and vast, out in the tranquil bay.
Come to the window, sweet is the night-air!
Only, from the long line of spray
Where the sea meets the moon-blanched land,
Listen! you hear the grating roar
Of pebbles which the waves draw back, and fling,
At their return, up the high strand,
Begin, and cease, and then again begin,
With tremulous cadence slow, and bring
The eternal note of sadness in.
今夜大海宁静,
潮水正满,月色皎洁。
多佛海岸,灯光闪烁夜色中。
英伦绝壁矗立,
横卧港湾,宁静里。
走到窗前,
夜色如此甘甜!
波涛起,月接岸。
听,怒吼声,
碎石迭起,浪拍岸。
潮落潮起,潮起潮落
大海的节奏,渐渐舒缓,
奏出永恒的伤感。

Sophocles long ago
Heard it on the A gaean, and it brought
Into his mind the turbid ebb and flow
Of human misery; we
Find also in the sound a thought,
Hearing it by this distant northern sea.
埃及的涛声,
流入古人的耳畔,
索福克勒斯追忆着,
历史的画面——
人类的磨难,
起伏,循环。
同样的涛声,
也给我们启示,
在这遥远的北海边。

The Sea of Faith
Was once, too, at the full, and round earth's shore
Lay like the folds of a bright girdle furled.
But now I only hear
Its melancholy, long, withdrawing roar,
Retreating, to the breath
Of the night-wind, down the vast edges drear
And naked shingles of the world.
信仰之海,
曾满流全地,如银带缠绕。
今日只闻悠长的哀鸣。
夜风里,
层层海浪,
从岸边退离。

Ah, love, let us be true
To one another! for the world, which seems
To lie before us like a land of dreams,
So various, so beautiful, so new,
Hath really neither joy, nor love, nor light,
Nor certitude, nor peace, nor help for pain;
And we are here as on a darkling plain
Swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight,
Where ignorant armies clash by night.
让我们彼此真诚相爱,
这世界太多梦幻——
无常,魅力,新奇,
却找不到喜乐、爱情、亮光,
没有确据,没有和平,
没有手替我疗伤。
挣扎和退却
席卷
萤火闪烁的平原,
无知的军兵
夜战依然。