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新目标九年级英语单元知识点、短语及句型总结之Unit 3

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Unit 3

一、知识点

①英语有两种语态:主动语态和补动语态 

  主动语态表示是动作的执行者

  被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者 

   Cats  eat  fish.    (主动语态)猫吃鱼。

   Fish  is eaten  by cats. (被动语态)鱼被猫吃。

  ②被动语态的构成

  由“助动词be +及物动词的过去分词”构成

  助动词be 有人称、数和时态的变化,其变化规则与be 作为连系动词时完全一样。

时态

被动语态结构

例句

一般现在  时

am

are +过去分词

is

English is spoken in many countries.

一般过去  时

was +过去分词

were + 过去分词

This bridge was built in 1989.

情 态

动 词

can/should

may  +be+过去分词

must/……

The work must be done right now.

   ③被动语态的用法

当我们不知道谁是动作的执行者,或者没有必要指出谁是动作的执行者,或者只需强调动作的承受者时,要用被动语态。

2. allow sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事(主动语态)如:

  Mother allows me to watch TV every night. 妈妈允许我每晚看电视。

 be allowed to do sth. 被允许做某事(被动语态)如:

  LiLy is allowed to go to Qinzhou. 莉莉被允许去钦州。

3. get their ears pierced 穿耳洞

 让/使(别人)做某事  get sth. done(过去分词)

             have sth. done        如:

 I get my car repaired. == I have my car repaired. 我让别人修好我的车

  I want to have my hair cut. 我要理发.

4. enough 足够 

 形容词+enough  如:beautiful enough 足够漂亮

  enough+名词 如:enough food 足够食物

  enough  to  足够…去做… 如:

 I have enough money to go to Beijing. 我有足够的钱去北京。

  She is old enough to go to school.她够大去读书了。

5. stop doing sth. 停止做某事 Please stop speaking.请停止说话。

stop to do sth. 停止下来去做某事 Please stop to speak. 请停下来说话。

6. 看起来好像…sb. seem to do sth.  = It seems that +从句

   He seems to feel very sad.

   It seems that he feels very sad. 他看起来好像很伤心。

7.倒装句:

由so+助动词(be/do/will/have)/情态动词+主语 意为:…也是一样

Neither/Nor + be动词/助动词/情态动词+主语(前为否定)  表示与前面所述事实一致.

  She is a student. So am I. 她是一个学生,我也是。

    She went to school just now. So did I . 她刚才去学校了,我也是

    She has finished the work. So have I . 她已经完成了工作,我也完成了。

She will go to school. So will he. 她将去学校,他也是。

Tom can't swim. Neither can John.

8. yet 仍然,还 常用在否定句或疑问句当中 可与although/though连用

9. stay up 熬夜如:I often stay up until 12:00pm.我经常熬夜到12点。

10. clean up 打扫 整理 如:

  I have cleaned up the bedroom. 我已经打扫完了卧室。

11. 程度副词:

always总是 usually经常 sometimes有时 never从不

如:I am always/usually/sometimes/never late for school.

        我总是/经常/有时/从不上学迟到。

12. 曾经做某事: 

  Do you ever get to school late? Yes, I do. No, I don't.

    Have you ever got to school late? Yes, I have. No, I haven't.

13. go shopping(去购物),         go fishing(去钓鱼)

go swimming(去游泳),        go boating(去划船)

go hiking(去登山),           go trekking(去徒步)

14. .be strict with+人.    be strict in+事物.

例: The head teacher is strict with his students

      He is strict in the work.

15. take the test 参加考试

pass the test 通过考试        fail a test  考试失败

16. the other day前几天,不久前的一天.(用于过去时)

every other day = every two days  每隔一天 (每两天)

17. agree 同意 反义词 disagree不同意 动词

   agreement 同意 反义词 disagreement 不同意 名词

18. keep sb/ sth. +形容词 使某人/某物保持…. 如:

We should keep our city clean.(cleaningⅹ)我们应该保持我们的城市干净。

Don't keep me waiting for a long time.别让我等得太久。

19. both…and… +动词复数形式

如: Both Jim and Li Ming play  bastketball.

20. learn (sth.) from sb.  向谁学习(什么) 如:

   Jim learnt English from his English teacher. 吉姆向他的英语老师学习英语

21. have an opportunity to do sth. 有机会做某事

   have a chance of doing sth. 有机会做某事

   如:I have an opportunity to go to Beijing.   I have a chance of going to Beijing.

22. at present 目前

23. at least 最少  at most 最多

24. 花费 take ,cost, spend , pay

    It take (sb.) time to do sth.  It took (me) 10days to read the book.

    sth. cost (sb.) ……        The book cost (me) 100yuan.

    sb. spend … on sth.        She spent 10days on this book.

    sb. spend …doing sth.      She spent 10days reading this book.

sb. pay … for sth.          She paid 10yuan for this book.

25. have +时间段+off    放假,休息 如:have 2 days off

off 不工作,不上班,不上学,不值班.

例: I think I'll take the afternoon off. 我想下午歇班.

      She is off today. 她今天休息.

      I have three days off next week. 下周我有三天假.

      They haven't had a day off since last week. 从上周来,他们没休息过一天.

26. reply to 答复某人 如:She replayed to MrGreen.

27. agree with sth. 同意某事      如:I agree with that idea.

   agree to sb.  同意某人的意见  如:I agree to LiLei.

28. get in the way of 碍事,妨碍 如:

Her social life got in the way of her studies. 她的社会生活妨碍了她的学习。

29. success  n.  succeed  v.  successful  adj.  successfully  adv.

30. think about 与think of 的区别 

   ①当两者译为: 认为、想起、记着时,两者可互用

     I often think about/ of that day. 我经常想起那天。

   ②think about 还有“考虑”之意 ,think of   想到、想出时两者不能互用

    At last, he thought of a good idea. 最后他想出了一个好主意。

    We are thinking about going Qinzhou. 我们正在考虑去钦州。

31. 对… 热衷, 对…兴趣

be serious about doing 如:She is serious about dancing. 她对跳舞热衷。

be serious about sth. 如:She is serious about him. 她对他感兴趣。

32. practice doing 练习做某事   She often practice speaking English.

33. care about sb. 关心某人 如:Mother often care about her son.

34. also  也   用于句中

   either也   用于否定句且用于句末

   too=as well   也  用于肯定句且用于句末

   I am also a student. 我也是一个学生

   I am a student too. 我也是一个学生。

I am not a student either. 我也不是一个学生。

35.allow sb to do sth  允许某人做…        allow doing sth  允许做…

36.stupid  silly  foolish 三个词都有“蠢”的意思.但略有不同.stupid 程度最强,指智力 理解力 学习能力差.  silly 指头脑简单,傻头傻脑,使人觉得可笑,带有感情色彩.  foolish 尤其在口语中广泛使用.

例: He is stupid in learning math. 他学习数学很笨.

     Stop asking such silly questions. 别再问这样傻的问题了.

     You are foolish to throw away such a good chance.

你真蠢,丢掉这样一个好机会.

37.He doesn't seem to have many friends.

=It seems that he doesn't have many friends.

=He seems not to have many friends.

38.clean (v.) 打扫,清理         

clean up  比较彻底地打扫,清理   clean out  打扫,清理地最彻底.

39.concentrate on…  全神贯注做…

例: He decided to concentrate on physics because he failed the exam.

     This company concentrates onChinamarket.

这家公司把重点放在中国市场上.

40. more…than…①与其说…不如说…; 比…更…

例: The man is more stupid than nervous.

与其说那人紧张,倒不如说他愚蠢.

②在这一结构中,more做adj. 修饰名词,表示“比…多”

例:I have more books than you. 我的书比你的多.

41.volunteer ① n. 自愿者. ② v. volunteer to do sth. 自愿做…

例: We all volunteered to help in the old people's home.

我们都志愿到敬老院帮忙.      

42. get in the way (of)... 妨碍...

例: He never gets in others' way. 他从不妨碍别人.

    The bikes over there will get in the way of others. 自行车放在那里会妨碍别人的.

43. success (n.)   successful (adj.)   succeed (v.)

44. only 处于句首,并后跟状语时,全句需要倒装.

例: Only then did he understand it. 只有到那时,他才明白.

Only in this way can we learn English well. 只有这样我们才能把英语学好.

Only when she came home, did he learn the news. 当她到家时,他才得知了这消息.

45. care about  关心,在乎,在意.

   例: No one cares about others nowadays. 现在没人关心别人.

      I don't care about what he does. 我并不在意他干什么.

二、短语

1. be allowed to do sth 被允许干…  

allow sb to do sth 允许某人干…

  allow doing sth 允许干…

2. sixteen-year-olds = sixteen-year-old boys and girls 16岁的孩子

3. part-time jobs 兼职工作           

4. a driver's license 驾照

5. on weekends 在周末                

6. at that age 在那个年龄段

7. on school nights 在上学期间的每个晚上     

8. stay up 熬夜

9. clean up (相当与及物动词) 清扫     

10. fail (in) a test 考试不及格

11. take the test 参加考试             

12. the other day 前几天

13. all my classmates 我所有的同学    

14. concentrate on 全神贯注于

15. be good for 对…有益              

16. in groups 成群的,按组的

17. get noisy 吵闹(系表结构)           

18. learn from 向某人学习

19. at present 目前,现在 

20. have an opportunity to do sth 有做…的机会 

21.English-English dictionary 英英词典

22. at least 至少                    

23.eight hours' sleep a night 每晚8小时的睡眠

24. an old people's home 敬老院   

25. take time to do sth 花费时间干…

26. primary schools 小学       

27. have…off 放假,休息

28. reply to 回答,答复           

29. get in the way of 妨碍

30. a professional athlete 职业运动员 

31. achieve one's dreams 实现梦想

32. think about 思考,考虑         

33. in the end 最后,终于

34. be serious about 对…热忠/极感兴趣

35. spend…on + n.   spend …(in) + v-ing 在…上花费时间/金钱

36. care about 关心,担心,在乎      

37. agree with 同意…

三.句子

1. I don't think twelve-year-olds should be allowed to get their ears pierced.

我认为不应该允许12岁的孩子穿耳孔.

2.They talk instead of doing homework. 他们聊天而不是做作业.

3.He is allowed to stay up until 11:00 pm. 允许他们熬到晚上11点.

4.We should be allowed to take time to do things like that more often.

我们应该被允许更加经常的花些时间多做这类事情.

5.What school rules do you think should be changed?

你认为学校的哪些制度应该改一改了?

6.The two pairs of jeans both look good on me.

这两条牛仔裤穿在我身上都适合.

7.The classroom is a real mess. 教室太脏了.

8.Should I be allowed to make my own decisions?

9.Only then will I have a chance of achieving my dream.

只有这样我才能实现我的梦想.

10.They should be allowed to practice their hobbies as much as they want.

应该允许他们对业余爱好想练多长时间就练多长时间.

11.We have nothing against running. 我们没有理由反对他跑步.