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写作篇章之衔接和过渡

【 来源:梦塔网络 作者:mt56.com 编录:mt56  加入收藏  点击数(0) 已有0人评论

  这是一个技术性的问题。有了好的思想,写出了没有语法错误的句子,是否意味着就是一篇好作文呢?恐怕未必。古人做文章讲究“起承转合”,英语作文也同样要注意句与句、段与段之间的过渡和粘连,只有那样才能使文章成为一个和谐的有机统一的整体。提高文章的连贯性,常用的方法有使用平行结构、重复单词或词组、用代词代替前文中的句子、保持名词/代词的数的一致和动词的时态的一致等等。注意下面这段文章中作者是如何综合运用这些手段的:

  Americans are queer people: they can’t play. Americans rush to work as soon as they      grow up. They want their work as soon as they wake. It is a stimulant—the only one they are not afraid of. They used to open their offices at ten o’clock; then at nine; then at eight; then at seven. Now they never shut them. Every business in America is turning into an open-all-day-and-night business. They eat all night, dance all night, make noise all night. They can’t play. They try to, but can’t. They turn football into a fight, baseball into a lawsuit, and yachting into machinery. They can’t play. The little children can’t play: they use mechanical toys instead—toy cranes, hoisting toy loads, toy machinery spreading a toy industrial depression of infantile dullness. The grownup people can’t play: they use a mechanical gymnasium and a clockwork horse. They can’t laugh; they hire a comedian and watch him laugh.

另一种做法是使用表示各种关系的承接词,下面列出一些常用的连接词和短语供大家参考,希望大家在平时的练习中有效地运用。

(一)空间段落展开

above         before me            before             on the left        

across from    below                in the distance    on the right

adjacent to    beyond               nearby             opposite to

also            further              next to             on top of

up             down                 close to            beneath

under         around               near to            over

 

(二)时间段落展开

first, second, etc.                    soon               eventually

in the meantime                        then               until

at the same time                       next               thereafter

after a while                          now                 after

presently                              later               afterward

somewhat later                         finally             at last

 

(三)分析段落展开

first, second, etc.                     now                 for this purpose

but                                     as a result         furthermore

finally                                 at last             moreover

also                                    consequently        likewise

another                                 for example          next

yet                                     for instance         on the contrary

once                                  in addition          in summary

such                                   in this case          on the other hand

then                                    otherwise           in conclusion

thus                                    to sum up              therefore

 

(四)比较段落展开

another                       `             furthermore         moreover

equally important                           too, also           at the same time

besides                                     then                accordingly

in fact                                     in addition to      like, likewise

similarly                                   just as…so         in much the same way

 

(五)对比段落展开

on the contrary                                   different from/in contrast

on the other hand                                 in spite of/despite

yet, but                                          whereas

unlike                                            nevertheless

not only…but also                                here…there

years ago…today                                  this…that

the former…the latter                            then…now

the first…whereas the second                     some…others

on the one hand…on the other                     once…now